What is Philosophy
What is Philosophy
of Science
Verification and Falsification
about Science
Science according
Paradigm and
paradigm shift
Karl Popper -
Logic and status
Consequences of Popper's theses
Epistemology -


Anti-scientific education at Swedish universities

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It is no doubt about that science largely is based on observations. Hypotheses are born from observations and from previous hypotheses. Verifications and falsifications of hypotheses by observations are fundamental. Induction and science are strongly connected.

It is also interesting to discuss what additional factors should be taken into consideration in order to increase the precision in the definition of the word science.

But some Swedish universities teaches science theory, where the importance of observations is completely absent, and it may even be denied that observations may contribute to science.

When such education is given during introductory courses in scientific method, I denote it anti-scientific, since it contradicts claims from both natural scientists and philosophers of science.

Indicative of this type of education is that it is dominated by the name "Karl Popper", or that the literature list mainly consists of the book A.F. Chalmers - "What is this thing called Science?" This book popularizes Popper's argumentation and adds philosophers like Kuhn, Lakatos, Feyerabend, and Bayes.

Update 2017

It appears that teaching focused on Popper's dogmatic theses has become less dominant since 2009, and I imagine that one of the causes for this is that both lecturers and students have found their way to

This is demonstrated e.g. from that a course in scientific method at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during 2016 focused not on Popper, but on Kuhn's discussion of paradigms.

Kuhn received cult status when he, at about 40 years of age (as opposed to when he became older), claimed that scientific beliefs constantly undergoes revolutions, which is used to claim that science is not trustworthy.


Examples of courses with anti-scientific education




Course name

2007- 2008



Linköping Inst. of Technology


Vetenskapsteori, 5 p / 7,5 hp

Lunds University

Theoretical philosophy

Vetenskapsteoretisk orienteringskurs, 5 p
(example of home examination in Swedish)

Royal Institute of Technology

Industriell Teknik och Management

Kunskapsbildning inom teknik och naturvetenskap, 6 p

Stockholm School of Economics

Center for Management and Organizations

Doktorandkursen i vetenskapsteorier (2006)







Jönköping University

School of Health Sciences

Vetenskapsteori, 7.5 hp

Luleå University of Technology

Business Adm, Techn and Social Sciences

Vetenskapsteori 7,5 hp

Lund University

Astronomy & theoretical physics

Den vetenskapliga metoden MNXA09 (7.5 hp)

Lunds Tekniska Högskola

LTH common

Vetenskapsteori och forskningsmetodik GEM040F




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